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A Synopsis of Passover and the Days of Unleavened Bread


   In ancient times there were three harvest seasons - spring, summer and fall. One of the major crops in the spring was barley. In early summer it was wheat and in the fall it was many other field crops. It is true that other crops are harvested during each of these times, mainly because of the advances made in agriculture. It is interesting to note that these three times in a year coincide with the three times we are commanded to gather together to celebrate some of Yahweh's annual Holy Days.
Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto Me in the year. Thou shalt keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before Me empty:) And the Feast of Harvest, the firstfruits of thy labours, which thou hast sown in the field: and the Feast of Ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field. Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before Yahweh Elohim, Exodus 23:14 - 17.
   During these three times there are five of the seven annual feasts we are commanded to keep. The two that are not included, but still required to keep, are the Feast of Trumpets and the Day of Atonement. Each of Yahweh's Holy Days point directly or indirectly to our Savior, Yahshua the Messiah.

Passover ‒ Precedes Unleavened Bread
   Ancient Israel was told to keep Passover as a day of remembrance and to celebrate it as a feast in Yah- weh's honor, pointing to Yahshua.
   And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to Yahweh throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever, Exodus 12:14.
   The word “memorial” comes from the Hebrew (Strong's #OT:2146)
zikrown (zik-rone'); from OT:2142; a memento (or memorable thing, day or writing); and is translated memorial or record in the King James Version of the Bible.
   The root word of
zikrown is Strong's #2142, zakar (zaw-kar'). Zakar has numerous translations in the KJV, among them being remember or to make to be remembered.
   Does Christianity today remember the day of Yahshua's death, once a year? No, certainly not. Instead, they celebrate the day of His birth as Christmas and the day of His resurrection as Easter. Each of these celebrated days has pagan origins. Celebrating these also counters Eccl. 7:1, which tells us which day is more important.
A good name is better than precious ointment; and the day of death than the day of one's birth, Ecclesiastes 7:1.
The Encyclopedia Judaica tells us: "The Feast of Passover consists of two parts: the Passover Ceremony and the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Originally, both parts existed separately, but at the beginning of the exile they were combined" (vol. 13, "Passover," p. 169).

Passover ‒ A Vigil To Be Kept
   Exodus 12:42 reads,
It [is} a night to be much observed unto Yahweh for bringing them out of the land of Egypt: this [is} that night of Yahweh to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
Jewish Tanakh gives the following reading for this verse:
   That was for [Yahweh] a night of vigil to bring them out of the land of Egypt; that same night is [Yahweh's], one of vigil for all the children of Israel throughout the ages.
   The word translated "observed" is Strong's #8107 (shimmui), from #8104 (shamai), meaning an observance. On #8104 Strong says "A primitive root; properly to hedge about (as with thorns), i.e., guard; gen. To protect, attend to, etc.: beware, be circumspect, take heed, keep, mark, look narrowly, observe, preserve, regard, reserve, save, sure, wait, watch." Clearly the meaning is watching.
   The Greek word translated "watch" is Strong's #1453,
gregoreo, and means to be vigilant and wide-awake; to be alert: be or stay awake, to keep awake, be alert, i.e., watch.

Passover ‒ A Night To Be Remembered
   Can we fathom in our minds what the Israelites were feeling during the night of the Passover? It seems reasonable that they could not sleep because they knew that the destroying angel would be coming to kill the firstborn. They were told to place the blood of the sacrificial lamb on the doorposts and lintels. They were warned to remain within the protection of their blood-marked houses the entire evening. Psalm 30:5 is referring to this:
   Weeping may endure for a night, but joy comes in the morning.
   The Israelites did leave Egypt by night ̶ the night after Passover:

   Observe the month of Abib, and keep the Passover unto Yahweh thy Elohim: for in the month of Abib Yahweh thy Elohim brought thee forth out of Egypt by night, Deuteronomy 16:1.
   Some believe Deut.16:1 says that the Israelites left the land of Egypt to start their trek to the Promised Land. However, the Israelites kept the Passover after the sun set beginning the 14th of Abib as recorded in the Scriptures.

Passover Day ‒ Israel Prepares To Leave Egypt
   During the night Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, "Up! Leave my people, you and the Israelites! Go, worship Yahweh as you have requested. Take your flocks and herds, as you have said, and go. And also bless me." The Egyptians urged the people to hurry and leave the country. "For otherwise," they said, "we will all die!" So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, and carried it on their shoulders in kneading troughs wrapped in clothing. The Israelites did as Moses instructed and asked the Egyptians for articles of silver and gold and for clothing. Yahweh had made the Egyptians favorably disposed toward the people, and they gave them what they asked for; so they plundered the Egyptians, Exodus 12:31 - 36 NIV.
   After the Israelites spent the entire night portion of Passover in their houses they did as they were instructed to do by Moses.
   The events of the day portion of Passover are relatively easy to reconstruct. On the morning of the 14th the remains of the sacrificial lamb were taken out, the people began gathering their family, flocks, and herds and assembled at Rameses, some 30 miles from Goshen (Num. 33:3). They also proceeded to spoil the Egyptians as Ex. 12:35 says.

First High Day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread
   On the first High Day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread was the time when the Israelites left Egypt,
The Israelites set out from Rameses on the fifteenth day of the first month, the day after the Passover. They marched out boldly in full view of all the Egyptians, who were burying all their firstborn, whom Yahweh had struck down among them; for Yahweh had brought judgment on their elohims, Numbers 33:3 - 4 NIV.
   The first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread is then a memorial for the time when the Israelites left Egypt.

Last High Day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread
   Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years, Exodus 12:40.
   We learn that the Israelites spent 430 years in Egypt before they left to return to the Promised Land. How did they know where to go?
And Yahweh went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night: He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people, Exodus 13:21 - 22.
   When the Israelites left Egypt, where did they head?
So Yahweh led the people around by the desert road toward the Red Sea. The Israelites went up out of Egypt armed for battle, Exodus 13:18 NIV.
   In the parting of the waters of the Red Sea, we find that Israel became completely free of Egyptian influence because Yahweh caused all of the Egyptians who followed Israel to die.
Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath He cast into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red Sea, Exodus15:4.
Passover - Yahshua Kept it
   Yahshua kept the Passover at the right time and thus fulfilled all righteousness up to the time of His death. His disciples did not have any difficulty keeping Passover at the right time (Luke 22:8 - 14).
   After Yahshua celebrated Passover with His disciples they went to the Garden of Gethsemane to pray. Here Yahshua told them to be alert and watchful, just as the Israelites were told to do on the night of Passover.
And when they had sung a Psalm, they went out into the mount of Olives ... My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death: tarry ye here, and watch with Me ... And when He came unto the disciples, and found them asleep, and said unto Peter, What, could you not watch with Me one hour? Watch and pray, that you enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed [is] willing, but the flesh is weak, Matthew 26:30, 38, 40 - 41.
   Shortly, Yahshua was taken prisoner and then impaled the following day before the Jews had celebrated their late Passover.
   Since Yahshua kept the law perfectly, should we not also keep Passover on the beginning of Abib 14?

Passover - Paul Kept It
   Paul was of the tribe of Benjamin, a Pharisee. He was an apostle to the Gentiles and he taught them to observe what some call the "Feasts of the Jews."
   Corinth was a Hellenistic, metropolitan community and a crossroads of trade and commerce. In 1 Corinthians 5:7 - 8, Paul tells the people of Corinth that Yahshua is the Passover Lamb sacrificed for us:
   Purge out therefore the old leaven that you may be a new lump as you are unleavened. For even the Messiah our Passover is sacrificed for us. Therefore let us keep the feast.
   For Paul to write this it is quite evident that these days are not done away with by Yahshua's death. It is obvious that Passover and the feast days referred to are still obligatory.

Passover Preparation For Unleavened Bread
   Passover, Abib 14, is the day preceding the first High Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. The King James Version of Scriptures describes Passover as the preparation day, the day Yahshua was put to death for the sins of mankind.
   It is indeed a preparation day. It is a day when one is to prepare for the days of Unleavened Bread by cleansing their houses of all leaven. The day following Passover is a High Sabbath. So the followers of Yahshua wanted to take His body down before the first day of Unleavened Bread began:
The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the [tree] on the Sabbath day, (for that Sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away, John 19:31.

Feast Of Unleavened Bread
   Yahweh had made the Egyptians favorably disposed toward the people, and they gave them what they asked for; so they plundered the Egyptians. The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Succoth. There were about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children. Many other people went up with them, as well as large droves of livestock, both flocks and herds. With the dough they had brought from Egypt, they baked cakes of unleavened bread. The dough was without yeast because unleavened bread and the cup containing the fruit of the vine (grape juice) are the emblems to be taken at Passover time. They had been driven out of Egypt and did not have time to prepare food for themselves, Exodus 12:36 - 39 NIV.
   When the Israelites left the bondage of Egypt they did not have time to prepare leavened bread. From the time of their departure (first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread) until they crossed over the Red Sea (the seventh day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread) they ate unleavened bread.
Celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because it was on this very day that I brought your divisions out of Egypt. Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. In the first month you are to eat bread made without yeast, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day. For seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses. And whoever eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off from the community of Israel, whether he is an alien or native-born. Eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live, you must eat unleavened bread, Exodus 12: 17-20 NIV.
   The first day and the last day of the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread are two of Yahweh's seven annual Holy Days. During this period of time no leaven is to be found within the house nor is to be eaten. Any product containing leaven is also not to be found within the house nor eaten. Actually, these verses also state that one is to eat unleavened bread at this time.

Spiritual Housecleaning
   To properly keep the Feast Unleavened Bread we must do so both physically and spiritually. Physically, we are to remove all leaven products from our homes. Spiritually, we are to remove any and all things that may cause us to be led astray.
Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Messiah our Passover is sacrificed for us: Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth, 1 Corinthians 5:7 - 8.

Leaven - Physical
   Physically, leaven is that which produces fermentation in a mass of dough.
A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump, Galatians 5:9.
   The word leaveneth is the translation of the Greek
zumoo meaning to cause to ferment.
   Leaven breaks down flour, causing decay in the dough.
   On the other side, there are two verses, Lev. 7:13 and Lev. 23:17, which show that the showbread and a praise offering to Yahweh both contained leaven, which sweetened the bread. Where leaven is the translation in the Old Testament of the King James Version, it refers to the physical usage (yeast).

Leaven - Spiritual
   Where leaven is the translation in the New Testament of the King James Version, it may refer to the physical usage at times, but it usually will have a spiritual meaning also.
Then understood they how that He bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees, Matthew 16:12.
And He charged them, saying, Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of Herod, Mark 8:15.
In the mean time, when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude of people, insomuch that they trode one upon another, He began to say unto His disciples first of all, Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy, Luke 12:1.
   From the first two Scriptures we learn that there are three groups of people that Yahshua tells His disciples to watch out for: the Pharisees, the Sadducees and the Herodians.
   Luke 12:1 speaks to the leaven of the Pharisees as the religious hypocrisy exhibited in their external ceremonialism. The leaven of the Sadducees was their disbelief in an afterlife and the coming of the Messiah. The leaven of the Herodians dealt with a political family who opposed Yahshua.
   Matt. 16:12 specifies that the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees is their doctrine while Luke 12:1 says the same thing about the Pharisees.
Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth, 1 Corinthians 5:8.
   In the last two Scriptures there are three words of interest: hypocrisy, malice and wickedness. Through examination we will find that they are related to unhealthy attitudes.
   Hypocrisy is a translation of the Greek
hupokrisis (Strong's #5272), whose root word means to play a part, deceitful pretending.
   Malice is a translation of the Greek
kakia (Strong's #2549), whose root word means to have ill will, desire to injure.
   Wickedness comes from the Greek
pone ria (Strong's 4189), whose root word means to be hurtful or evil.
   1 Cor. 5:8 then says that one must avoid those activities which center on deceiving others or which have evil purposes directed towards others.
   Sincerity is a translation of the Greek
eilikrineia (Strong's #1505), whose root word means to be genuine.
   Truth comes from the Greek
aletheia (Strong's #225), whose root words mean not concealing.
   Our actions then, at the time of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, should be genuinely truthful.

Wave Sheaf
   That part of the Passover/ Unleavened Bread season that is overlooked deals with the wave sheaf offering.
Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest: And he shall wave the sheaf before Yahweh, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the Sabbath the priest shall wave it, Leviticus 23:10 - 11.
   The Sabbath spoken of here is the Hebrew shabbath and speaks of the weekly Sabbath. The harvest spoken of here is barley. This wave sheaf was not offered until the Israelites entry into the Promised Land and raised a crop as it was not possible for them to raise crops during their sojourn in the Wilderness of Zin after leaving Egypt. This wave sheaf offering was to be made on Sunday, the day after the weekly Sabbath which occurs during the Feast of Unleavened Bread.
   The Feast of Firstfruits is also called the Feast of Weeks and the Feast of Harvest in the Old Testament, Pentecost in the New T estament. The grain harvested at this time was wheat. The harvest spoken of in Lev. 23:10 is barley. This sheaf is often referred to as the first of the firstfruits.
   Pentecost points ahead to the time when the firstfruits will be gathered. Yahshua, Himself, is referred to as the first of the firstfruits because He arose during the Feast of Unleavened Bread.
And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year's end, Exodus 34:22.
But every man in his own order: Messiah the firstfruits; afterward they that are Messiah's at His coming, 1 Corinthians 15:23.
   Just as the wave sheaf had to be presented unto Yahweh (Lev. 23:10 - 11) on the first day of the week, Yahshua could not let Mariam cling to Him until He had presented Himself unto His Father as an acceptable sacrifice,
Yahshua saith unto her, Touch Me not; for I am not yet ascended to My Father: but go to My brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto My Father, and your Father; and to My Elohim, and your Elohim, John 20:17.

   Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread are not celebrated by the Christian world today. Instead, they celebrate Easter, which has its pagan origins. The Christian world is more interested in Easter eggs, Easter bunnies and hot cross buns. Yahweh's Word tells us to remember Yahshua's death, not His resurrection. Without the sacrifice of Yahshua we would not have any hope for a future in the Kingdom. To be part of the coming Kingdom, Scriptures tell us that we are to be faithful to the end.

-Elder Roger G. Meyer

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